Mirrorless


Fujifilm X-T100 Review

July 27, 2018

By Greg Scoblete

PDN is a member of the Technical Image Press Association which has contracted with Image Engineering to perform detailed lab tests of digital cameras. See here for a full methodological rundown of how Image Engineering puts cameras through their paces. Full res files of every visual in this review are available to download for your pixel-peeping pleasure here

Introduction

The X-T100 features a 24-megapixel APS-C-sized image sensor with phase detection autofocusing and a native ISO range of 200-12,800 (expandable from 100 to 51,200).

There’s a 3-inch touch display that swivels out horizontally almost 180 degrees. There are 11 film simulation modes and 17 Advanced Filters. Continuous shooting speeds top off at 6fps for up to 26 JPEG stills.

On the video side, the camera records 4K video at 15p or full HD at up to 60p. There’s a mic port, too.

Additional features include:

  • Face and eye detect AF
  • 1/4000 sec. top mechanical shutter speed
  • 1/32,000 sec. top electronic shutter speed
  • Pop-up flash
  • Focus peaking
  • USB 2.0 connectivity
  • 430 shot battery life
  • Bluetooth Low Energy for automatic image transfers to mobile devices
  • Wi-Fi

The X-T100 retails for $600 for the body or for $700 with the XC15-45mm f/3.5-5.6 OIS PZ lens. Both are available for purchase now. The X-T100 is sold in black, dark silver and gold.

Resolution

• 24-megapixel sensor used fully.

• At ISOs of 200, 400, and 800, 104% of the theoretical maximum is reached with 2086 line pairs per picture height (LP/PH), 2073 LP/PH, and 2075 LP/PH respectively.

• At the highest ISO of 51200, 1646 LP/PH are reproduced (82% of the theoretical maximum).

• Similar to the Fujifilm X-A5 at ISO200 (104% of theoretical maximum with 2083 LP/PH).

This graph shows the loss of contrast (y-axis) as a function of the spatial frequency in line pairs per picture height (x-axis) for different ISO-sensitivities (colored lines). The further to the right a curve stretches before descending, the better the resolution at that ISO. The limiting resolution for each ISO can be found by identifying to the highest spatial frequency which results in a contrast of 0.1, or where the ISO curve crosses the thicker horizontal thicker black line marking 0.1. The vertical pink line is a reference representing half the number of pixels in the sensor height (the Nyquist frequency).

Texture loss

• At ISO200, MTF50 measurements are 1350 LP/PH in high-contrast areas (38.1% artifacts), and 1193 LP/PH in low contrast (43.2%).

• High-contrast reproduction is still good at, for example, ISO1600 (1125 LP/PH with 43.6% artifacts); but poorer in low contrast (953 LP/PH with 51.9% artifacts).

• Texture reproduction at higher ISO is not at all good: at ISO12800, MTF50 is 400 LP/PH with 62.5% artifacts in high-contrast areas, and 222 LP/PH in low-contrast areas, with 78.4% artifacts.

• At the highest ISO of 51200, MTF50 at high contrast is a mere 270 LP/PH with a whopping 73.5% artifacts (in low-contrast areas: 152 LP/PH with 90.5% artifacts).

• The Fujifilm X-A5 produced similar texture loss at low ISO (1368 LP/PH with 29.4% artifacts in high contrast, and 1337 LP/PH with 28.3% artifacts at low contrast in images captured at ISO200).

• The X-A5 also performed poorly in terms of texture loss at ISO12800: 341 LP/PH with 58.3% artifacts (high contrast) and 220 LP/PH with 79.8% artifacts at low contrast.

An artifact is an alteration in a digital image due to technology or technique of processing. Artifacts stem from noise, compression, and sharpening. This graph plots the calculated difference in digital signal between two methods (DeadLeavesCross & DeadLeavesDirect). The colored lines represent response at different ISOs and in reference to a high-contrast target and a low-contrast target. Values plotted are the Dead Leaves SFR difference against the spatial frequency. The larger the area under the curve, the more artifacts are present.

Edge contrast / sharpening

• Along a high-contrast edge, the X-T100 produces a normal amount of sharpening, with 10.8% overshoot and 4.7% undershoot at ISO200. Along low-contrast edges, 12.3% overshoot and 8.3% undershoot were produced.

• At ISO1600, overshoot is 9.0% and undershoot 2.4% along high-contrast edges, with 10.8% overshoot and 5.7% undershoot along edges low in contrast.

• Sharpening at higher ISOs is much milder: at ISO12800, 4.6% overshoot and 0.3% undershoot is produced along high-contrast edges, with 3.0% and 2.8% respectively, along low-contrast edges.

• Sharpening is slightly less than the X-A5, which produced, for example, an overshoot of 12.9% and undershoot of 5.8% at ISO200 along high-contrast edges

This graph shows the degree of sharpening in the image by representing an over- and undershoot along contrasted edges. The colored lines represent measurements at different ISOs and in high- and low-contrast situations. The size of the dip before the edge (in both depth and breadth) indicates the degree of undershoot; similarly, the amount overshoot is indicated by the height and breadth of the peak. Thus, larger dips and/or peaks indicate that a sharpening effect is visible.

OECF VN / visual noise

• Visual noise modelled in Viewing Condition 1 ranges from an observable 1.3 at ISO200, to more noticeable values of 2.2 at ISO1600.

• At ISO6400, visual noise would interfere with viewing (2.8) an image at 100%.

• At higher ISOs, noise is very disruptive to viewing (e.g. score of 6.1 in images captured at ISO51200).

• The X-A5 produced a bit more noise in VN1 (scores 1.3 to 2.0 in ISOs 200 to 3200, increasing to very disturbing at higher ISOs).

• In Viewing Condition 2, in contrast, noise in images captured by the X-T100 is not noticeable at any of the lower or medium range of ISOs (scores from 0.5 to 0.9 in ISOs up to and including ISO6400).

• At the highest ISO of 51200, noise would be obvious (score 1.5) in Viewing Condition 2.

• In Viewing Condition 3, visual noise scores range from 0.5 at ISO200 to 0.8 at ISO800.

• Higher ISOs would include noise that would be observable but not very disturbing (e.g. ISO1600 and 3200, score of 1.0; score 1.2 at ISO25600).

• The visual noise produced by the X-T100 is most visible in the darker mid-tones.

This chart shows the noise behavior at various ISO-sensitivities (colored lines) as a function of the brightness of the target image, which is indicated by the relative darkness of the circle on the outer edge of the diagram (noise in shadowed areas are above, and in highlights below). The larger the area inside a curve, the stronger the noise. The degree to which noise disturbs the appreciation of an image, depends on the image size and the viewing condition. The right-hand side of the chart shows the visibility of the noise in an image that is displayed 100% on a monitor (VN1). The left-hand half shows the visibility of noise in a 40-cm tall print (VN3).

This chart shows the noise behavior at various ISO-sensitivities (colored lines) as a function of the brightness of the target image. The perception of noise is represented by the area that is encircled by the curve. The larger the area, the stronger the noise. How much the noise disturbs the viewing of an image, depends on the image size and the viewing distance. This chart shows the noise visibility for an image that is displayed 100% on a monitor (VN1).

This chart shows the noise behavior at various ISO-sensitivities (colored lines) as a function of the brightness of the target image. The perception of noise is represented by the area that is encircled by the curve. The larger the area, the stronger the noise. How much the noise disturbs the viewing of an image, depends on the image size and the viewing distance. The chart shows the noise visibility for an image that is about postcard size (scaled to a height of 10cm) viewed at a distance of 25cm.

Dynamic Range

• The dynamic range of the X-T100 is fairly good and very consistent, between 8.6 and 8.8 f-stops at ISOs from ISO200 to ISO6400. Dynamic range is smaller at the higher ISOs, with a minimum of 6.5 f-stops at ISO51200.

• Tests of the X-A5 showed better dynamic range: over 9.1 f-stops from ISO200 to ISO3200.

Color Reproduction

• Color reproduction is moderately good, with eight colors tested showing strong deviation in reproduction from the original color.

• ∆E is ranges from 11.5 to 11.9 at all ISOs tested, with the sole exception of ISO 1600 (12.1).

Color reproduction is shown here in two ways. The upper figure is a chart comparing a reference color (right-hand half of each color patch) directly with the color reproduced by the camera (left-hand half of the color patch). Below is a table that lists the DeltaE of each color patch. Red cells indicated strong color deviations, light green cells represent colors with noticeable deviations, and a dark green field represents a moderate deviation.

**SEE HOW THE FUJI X-T100 COMPARES TO OTHER CAMERAS IN COLOR ACCURACY**

Automatic white balance

• Automatic white balance is fair, with scores of 1.1 and 1.2 at ISOs from ISO200 to ISO1600.

• At the higher ISOs, automatic white balance does not perform well: 2.4 at ISO25600 and 3.0 at ISO51200.

• Automatic white balance in the X-A5 was similar, with scores of 1.3 to 1.6 at all ISOs from ISO200 up to and including (the top native ISO of) ISO12800.

Video

• Capable of 4K video.

• Resolution is only fair, with 748 LP/PH recorded (69% of the theoretical maximum) at low ISO and 751 LP/PH (70%) at high ISO.

• Texture reproduction at low ISO is proportionally good, with 667 LP/PH (42.0% artifacts) in high-contrast areas, and 606 (39.7% artifacts) at low contrast.

• At high ISO, texture reproduction at high contrast shows 527 LP/PH (42.7% artifacts), and 580 LP/PH at low contrast (41.7% artifacts).

• Sharpening in video: 2.5% overshoot at low ISO, compared to 2.6% at high ISO, when recording high-contrast edges, together with 11.2% and 10.6% undershoot, respectively.

• Along low-contrast edges, overshoots are 10.8% (low ISO) and 10.6% (high ISO), together with undershoots of 18.7% (low ISO) and 18.8% (high ISO).

• Dynamic range in video is 8.7 f-stops at low ISO, and 9.0 at high ISO in video.

• Noise would only be visible in VN1 in video (score 1.1 at low ISO, 1.0 at high).

This chart shows the noise behavior at two ISO-sensitivities (ISO100 and ISO1600) as a function of the brightness of the target image. The amount of noise perceived is reflected in the size of the area encircled by the curves. The larger the area, the stronger the noise and its perception. The degree to which the noise disturbs the viewer, depends on the image size and the viewing distance. This chart shows the noise visibility for a video frame that is displayed 100% on a monitor (VN1).

This graph shows the loss of contrast (y-axis) as a function of the spatial frequency in line pairs per picture height (x-axis) for two ISO-sensitivities in video mode (colored lines). The further to the right a curve stretches before descending, the better the resolution at that ISO. The limiting resolution for each ISO can be found by identifying to the highest spatial frequency which results in a contrast of 0.1, or where the ISO curve crosses the thicker horizontal thicker black line marking 0.1. The vertical pink line is a reference representing half the number of pixels in the sensor height (the Nyquist frequency).

This graph shows the sharpening in the image due to an over- and undershoot along edges. Depending on the size (based on width and height) of the additional emerging area, a lower (shallower additional area) or stronger (higher and narrower additional area) sharpening effect is visible.

Start-up time

• The camera’s start-up time is 2.7 seconds, which is only a small bit slower than the X-A5 (2.6 seconds).

Continuous shooting

• The Fujifilm X-T100 records 6.0 JPEG frames per second for a total of 100 images recorded, and 5.6 RAW images per second for a total of 19.

Autofocus (300lx) and Autofocus (30lx)

As this is a mirrorless camera, the autofocus time was measured only using Live View.
• At 300lux, the autofocus takes just under 0.4 seconds, with a total shooting time of just over 0.4 seconds.
Autofocus (30lx) Live View

• In low light, the autofocus in Live View takes 0.5 seconds for a total shooting time of 0.6 seconds.

Fujifilm X-T100 Review

Notes from the Image Engineering Test Bench

The Fujifilm X-T100 is a 24-megapixel camera aimed at people who are just getting started with mirrorless digital photography. It makes good use of its sensor: resolution measurements show over 100 percent of the theoretical maximum is reached at ISOs up to and including ISO3200. At ISOs of 200, 400, and 800, 104 percent of the theoretical maximum is reached with 2086 line pairs per picture height (LP/PH), 2073 LP/PH, and 2075 LP/PH respectively. At the highest available ISO of 51200, 1646 LP/PH are reproduced (82 percent of the theoretical maximum).

These resolution results are similar to the resolution measured from the Fujifilm X-A5, which also had a 24-megapixel sensor. The X-A5 also reached over 100 percent of the theoretical maximum at, for example, ISO200 (104 percent with 2083 LP/PH).

Texture loss is not noticeably a problem in the X-T100. MTF50 measurements show 1350 LP/PH in high-contrast areas at ISO200 (38.1 percent artifacts), and 1193 LP/PH in low contrast (43.2 percent). MTF50 remains good at, for example, ISO800 (1276 LP/PH with 40.9 percent artifacts in high contrast, and 1086 LP/PH at low contrast with 43.6 percent artifacts). High-contrast reproduction is still good at the middle range of ISO, for example, ISO1600 (1125 LP/PH with 43.6 percent artifacts); but poorer in low contrast (953 LP/PH with 51.9 percent artifacts).

However, at the high end of the ISO range, texture reproduction is not at all good: at ISO12800, MTF50 is 400 LP/PH with 62.5 percent artifacts in high-contrast areas, and 222 LP/PH in low-contrast areas, with 78.4 percent artifacts. At the highest ISO of 51200, MTF50 in high-contrast areas is a mere 270 LP/PH with a whopping 73.5 percent artifacts, and the results are even worse in low-contrast areas: 152 LP/PH with 90.5 percent artifacts.

In comparison, the Fujifilm X-A5 produced similar results in texture loss when assessed at low ISO (e.g. images captured at ISO200 show an MTF50 of 1368 LP/PH with 29.4 percent artifacts in high-contrast areas, and 1337 LP/PH with 28.3 percent artifacts at low contrast). And the X-A5 performed poorly at the top native ISO of 12800: 341 LP/PH with 58.3 percent artifacts (high contrast) and 220 LP/PH with 79.8 percent artifacts at low contrast.

Along a high-contrast edge, the X-T100 produces a normal amount of sharpening, with 10.8 percent overshoot and 4.7 percent undershoot at ISO200. At the same ISO of 200 along an edge low in contrast, the X-T100 produces 12.3 percent overshoot and 8.3 percent undershoot.

At ISO1600, overshoot along high-contrast edges in images made by the X-T100 is 9.0 percent, and undershoot 2.4 percent, with 10.8 percent and 5.7 percent undershoot along edges low in contrast. Sharpening is much milder at higher ISOs along both high-contrast and low-contrast edges: at ISO12800, 4.6 percent overshoot and 0.3 percent undershoot is produced along high-contrast edges, with 3.0 percent and 2.8 percent respectively, along low-contrast edges.

Sharpening is slightly less than seen in images made by the X-A5, which produced, for example, an overshoot of 12.9 percent and undershoot of 5.8 percent along high-contrast edges captured at ISO 200.

Visual noise produced by the X-T100 in Viewing Condition 1 (VN1, a modelled scenario in which the image is viewed at 100 percent) ranges from an observable 1.3 at ISO200, to a more noticeable value of 2.2 at ISO1600. Noise becomes more disturbing as ISO is increased: the visual noise in an image captured at ISO6400 would be very noticeable (2.8) when viewed at 100 percent. At the highest ISOs, visual noise would be disturbing (e.g. score of 6.1 in images captured at ISO51200). The X-A5 also produced visual noise that was obvious when viewed at 100 percent (scores 1.3 to 2.0 in ISOs 200 to 3200, increasing to very disturbing levels at higher ISOs (score 3.9 at the top native ISO of 12800)).

In Viewing Condition 2, modelling a small print or mobile phone screen, in contrast, noise in images captured by the X-T100 is not noticeable at any of the lower or medium range of ISOs (scores from 0.5 to 0.9 in ISOs up to and including ISO6400). At the highest ISO of 51200, noise would be obvious (score 1.5) in Viewing Condition 2. The noise scores achieved by the X-T100 in VN2 are similar to those measured from the X-A5.

In Viewing Condition 3, modelling viewing the image as a large print, visual noise scores range from 0.5 at ISO200 to 0.8 at ISO800. Higher ISOs would include noise that would be observable but not very disturbing (e.g. ISO1600 and 3200, score of 1.0; score 1.2 at ISO25600). In comparison, the X-A5 performed a little bit better in VN3, with noise only visible at ISO12800 (score 1.1) and above.
The visual noise produced by the X-T100 is most visible in the darker mid-tones.

The dynamic range of the X-T100 is fairly good and very consistent, between 8.6 and 8.8 f‑stops at ISOs between ISO200 to ISO6400. Dynamic range is smaller at the higher ISOs, with a minimum of 6.5 f-stops at ISO51200. Tests of the X-A5 showed better dynamic range: over 9.1 f-stops from ISO200 to ISO3200.

Color reproduction by the X-T100 is moderately good, with eight colors tested showing strong deviation in reproduction from the original color. ∆E is also moderately good, ranging from 11.5 to 11.9 at all ISOs tested, with the sole exception of ISO 1600 (12.1).

The automatic white balance in the X-T100 is also fair, with scores of 1.1 and 1.2 at ISOs from ISO200 to ISO1600. At higher ISOs, automatic white balance is poorer: 2.4 at ISO25600 and 3.0 at ISO51200. Automatic white balance in the X-A5 was slightly better, with scores of 1.3 to 1.6 at all ISOs from ISO200 up to and including (the top native ISO of) ISO12800.

The Fujifilm X-T100 is a slow camera, especially for one designed for the beginner who may not have much practice anticipating shots. The camera’s start-up time is 2.7 seconds, a small bit slower than the X-A5 (2.6 seconds). In bright light (300lux), the autofocus takes just under 0.4 seconds, with a total shooting time of just over 0.4 seconds. In low light, the autofocus in Live View takes 0.5 seconds for a total shooting time of 0.6 seconds.

The Fujifilm X-T100 records 6.0 JPEG frames per second for a total of 100 images recorded, and 5.6 RAW images per second for a total of 19.

Video

The Fujifilm X-T100 is capable of 4K video. Frames grabbed from videos made at low ISO show only fair resolution, with 748 LP/PH recorded (69 percent of the theoretical maximum). Frames from videos shot at high ISO show nearly identical resolution (751 LP/PH, 70 percent).

Texture reproduction in video shot at low ISO, is proportionally good with 667 LP/PH (42.0 percent artifacts) in high-contrast areas, and 606 (39.7 percent artifacts) at low contrast. At high ISO, texture reproduction at high contrast shows 527 LP/PH (42.7 percent artifacts), and 580 LP/PH at low contrast (41.7 percent artifacts).

Sharpening in video is very moderate (2.5 percent overshoot at low ISO, compared to 2.6 percent at high ISO, when recording high-contrast edges, together with 11.2 percent and 10.6 percent undershoot, respectively). Along low-contrast edges, the overshoot is 10.8 percent (low ISO) and 10.6 percent (high ISO), together with 18.7 percent (low ISO and 18.8 percent (high ISO) undershoot.

The video performs a bit better than still images in dynamic range, with 8.7 f-stops measured from frames grabbed from video shot at low ISO, and 9.0 f-stops at high ISO.

Noise would only be visible in VN1 in video (score 1.1 at low ISO, 1.0 at high). In the other viewing conditions (small mobile screen, or equivalent to a large print), visual noise would not be noticeable (scores of 0.6 and 0.7, respectively, at both low and high ISO).